June 23rd, marks the 36th anniversary of Title IX, the revolutionary federal law that outlaws sex-discrimination in education. Title IX, which was originally passed in 1972, reads: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance[.]" The regulations for implementing Title IX were issued in 1975, and require that schools publish grievance procedures, and have Title IX coordinators.
According to a special report in Ms. magazine the gains since 1972 are extraordinary, and not just in sports: In 1970 women were only 40% of all undergraduates, now they are 60%. Previously women received just 14% of doctoral degrees, but today they earn "nearly half." In medical schools, 50% of students are now women, whereas prior to Title IX women represented just 10%, and in law school, women students have jumped from 7% to 49%. According to the Handbook for Achieving Gender Equity through Education prior to Title IX, many scholarships "could only be awarded to men, and financial aid…could be denied to women who were married, pregnant or had children."
Title IX still faces challenges. The 2007 report from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education notes that "Title IX is under attack from critics who claim that there is a 'boys' crisis." Yet, "studies show…that girls' gains have not come at boys' expense." Moreover, in 2006 the Department of Education further weakened Title IX by allowing more sex-segregated education in public schools. These changes have been challenged by the ACLU in recent lawsuits.
Media Resources: Feminist Majority Foundation 6/23/2008, Feminist Majority Foundation 6/11/2008, National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education 2008, Handbook for Achieving Gender Equity through Education, 2007, Ms. magazine, Fall 2007.
12/11/2013 Human Rights Day Celebrated Around The World - Yesterday marked International Human Rights Day, a day to celebrate human rights advances and to assess the challenges that lie ahead in protecting them.
"The fundamentals for protecting and promoting human rights are largely in place: these include a strong and growing body of international human rights law and standards, as well as institutions to interpret the laws, monitor compliance and apply them to new and emerging human rights issues," said United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay in a statement. . . .
12/11/2013 UConn Under Federal Investigation For Mishandling Sexual Assault Cases - The US Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) informed the University of Connecticut on Monday that it will investigate the school for allegedly mishandling sexual assault cases and violating Title IX, the federal law that requires all recipients of federal financial assistance for education programs and activities to prohibit sex discrimination and sexual harassment [PDF].
The investigation was sparked after seven women filed a formal complaint in October alleging that UConn had failed to protect them from sexual assault and exposed them to a sexually hostile environment.One woman says her attacker was expelled from campus but later readmitted without her knowledge. . . .
12/11/2013 Massachusetts Democrat Katherine Clark Wins Congressional Seat - Democrat Katherine Clark will become the fifth woman to represent Massachusetts in the US House Tuesday, after easily defeating three opponents in a special election.
"Six years ago, there wasn't a single woman representing Massachusetts in Congress," said Niki Tsongas, the only other woman representing Massachusetts in the House. . . .